Definitions of terms (C) used in Snooker and English Billiards

Snooker Cue

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Cannon/s
A stroke in which the cue-ball is made to contact more than one object-ball. A cannon has no scoring value in Snooker, but is commonly used to gain or improve position. In English Billiards a cannon has a scoring value of two points.
See:-  Close Cannons · Direct Cannon · Indirect Cannon · Gathering Cannon/s

Carambole
A - The original term for a 'cannon', named after a small Spanish fruit.
B - A game introduced to England from France around 1772, in which a 'Carambole' (a red      ball) was added to the two white balls already in use. This gradually evolved into the      game of English Billiards as we know it today.
See:-  English Billiards

Centre Spot
The spot in the exact centre of the table, placed half-way between the two middle pockets. This is used in:-
English Billiards
1 - For spotting the red ball after it has been potted twice in successive strokes from the      Spot.
2 - For spotting the red ball when both the Spot and Pyramid spots are occupied.
3 - For spotting the non-striker's cue-ball after a foul stroke.
Snooker - For spotting the Blue ball
See:-  Spots

Centre Spot of the Baulk-line
The spot in the exact centre of the Baulk-line. This is used in:-
English Billiards
For spotting the non-striker's cue-ball after the striker has made fifteen consecutive hazards, but only when it is off the table as a direct result of the non-striker's last stroke.
Snooker - For spotting the Brown ball.
Check Side See:-  Spots

Check Side
Left or right-hand spin applied to the cue-ball to reduce the angle of reflection and the speed it travels after contact with a cushion.
See:-  Angle of Reflection · Running Side · Side

'Chinese' Snooker - Snooker
'Chinese' Snooker Not a real snooker, but describes the position where although a clear shot can be made to the ball "on" the stroke is made far more difficult by the ball immediately behind the cue-ball.
See:-  Cover · Crawl Stroke · Snooker/Snookered

Choice of Balls - English Billiards
In English Billiards each player uses a separate cue-ball. In serious matches the players 'string', and the winner chooses the ball that he will use during the game.
See:-  Cue-Ball · String/Stringing

Clearance - Snooker
Cocked-Hat Double Consecutive scoring strokes in which every ball on the table is pocketed.

Close Cannons - English Billiards
Where the three balls stay close together before, during, and after the stroke.
See:-  Cannon/s

Cocked-Hat
A form of 'double', usually played as a 'shot to nothing'.
See:-  Double/s · Safety · Shot to Nothing

Containing Safety - Snooker
A "Containing Safety" Shot A stroke which solves the immediate problem of leaving the balls safe, but which leaves an easy safety shot for the next player. Often played by rolling the cue-ball gently up to the ball "on."
See:-  Attacking Safety · Safety

Cover - English Billiards
In English Billiards a ball is said to be covered when it cannot be hit directly due to an intervening ball.
See:-  Snooker/Snookered

Crawl Stroke - Snooker
A method of snookering that consisted of gently rolling the cue-ball up to a 'free' ball, after having been snookered by a foul stroke. The 'Crawl Stroke' was made illegal in 1934.
See:-  'Chinese' Snooker · Snooker/Snookered

Cue
The descendant of the 'mace', the cue is the long, tapering, leather-tipped 'stick' with which the player strikes the cue-ball. The shafts of quality cues are usually made of ash or maple, while the butt consists of ebony or another hardwood.
See:-  Butt · Ferrule · Flat · Half-Butt · Long-Butt · Mace · Point · Shaft · Tips

Cue-Action
Describes the movement of the cue before, during, and after the execution of the stroke. No player can ever reach their full potential until they have acquired a good cue-action.
See:-  Address · Feather/ing · Follow-Through (A)

Cue-Ball
The ball which the player must strike with the cue. In Snooker this is a plain white ball, but in English Billiards where each player uses a different cue-ball, there are either two white balls - one with two black spots; or one white and one yellow.
See:-  Choice of balls · Object-balls · String/Stringing

Cushion/s
When billiards first became a table game in the 1400's, the cushions - which at that time were just plain wood - were merely there to stop the balls falling off the table. As the equipment improved the cushions were gradually filled with curled hair, felt, list or wool, and these eventually made way for pure Native India-Rubber around 1835, and vulcanised rubber about 1845. The early cushions were quite high, making a ball against the cushion virtually unplayable, but towards the end of the nineteenth century they had evolved into the lower cushions we know today.
See:-  Face · Pocket/s · Undercut


Snooker Cue